Carnets de Homs: 16 janvier - 2 février 2012 (Hors série Connaissance) (French Edition)


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Here it was. Veron undoubtedly made choices based on what he sensed would be successful at the.

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Opera, and thus would have been influenced by the attitudes and expectations o f both. But, it is also likely that he was inclined to. The depiction of Veron as the chief administrative power was advanced by the. In defense of the manner in which he ran the Opera, Veron spoke. In relation to operatic content and presentation, Veron claimed that he.

According to Veron, Meyerbeer readily accepted. Because Veron leaned toward self- aggrandizement, and because his descriptions represent only his side, his assessments should be not be accepted without question or without weighing them against other evidence. Fulcher describes these. He had been.

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Choiseul became increasingly powerful and popular as a m ember o f the Chamber of. Peers and was appointed to the provisional government at the end o f the Restoration. Veron describes the resistance from each participant to change or suppress any part of iheir work at such a meeting see p. More liberal members included Hippolyte Royer-Collard , le Chef de. Royer-Collard won prestige during the Restoration,. Cave , the latter was undoubtedly the more liberal. Bertin was editor of. Journal des debats, but Cave, who held the position o f Commission secretary and.

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La Tentation , as liberal, atheistic, and literary although dilettantish. Based on facts of his career and some o f his published views, Veron appears. Prior to his appointment as director in , at the. Shortly after. Paris, motivated by his long-standing interest in what he called "les oeuvres de. The collapse of the conservative, ultraroyalist Ministre Villele Jean-Baptiste-.

Sylvere Martignac, at the end o f brought on a new era when, as. Veron stated, "politics was no longer at war with ideas" and "a grand literary. In his journal, Veron did not aim to promote a narrow political, philosophical,. Dans un siecle aussi positif que le notre, dont la raison ne se passionne que pour des faits et des resultats, elle ne pouvait non plus mener une vie isolee, rester en dehors des interets sociaux et ne pas regevoir un nouveau mouvement de toutes les ambitions si bien entendues de tous les peuples.

These courses returned in , around the time that La Muette de Portia appeared at the Academie. The editor revealed a proclivity for relating literature to political interests in offering. Scribe was a contributor, as was Rossini. In the preface to the first issue, Veron announced that "des tableaux de moeurs de. In wanting the reader to be directly engaged.

To start a literary tribune in such an epoch, then, is to provoke all questions of general interest whose examination [ Undoubtedly, the associations that he made. Scribe, Duponchel was a contributor, and Choiseul participated as a m em ber of the. Villemain and Cousin, whom he identified as "les oracles litteraires et. Madame duchesse de Bern compares aux diverses mascarades qui ont eu lieu en cour depuis le 14e siecle. Memoires, Veron endorsed other articulators o f liberal thought, identifying Saint-.

Such comments, along with the editorial ideals in La Revue de Paris, reveal an. Despite the outward signs of common ideas and values, the conflicts between. Veron as it wanted. Later that month, Choiseul stated more fully and rhetorically his appeal to allot more. See AN, F2I, e. Veron remains, the Commission will continue, according to the Cahier des Charges, to attend more or less well, with more or less complaisance, to the rather trivial things to which it has been limited.

Two letters o f Choiseul the following month, which illustrate m ore pointedly. In the first May , Choiseul bemoaned the fact that he knew nothing of the opera, even. See the discussion of basic stages of production below, pp. Choiseul promised to report about the meeting in a "Lettre officielle a Votre Excellence. R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.

Other documents that demonstrate ChoiseuFs attempts to grant the Commission. La Juive. In a three-page draft outline of the changes that Choiseul wanted to see. These stipulations,. Choiseul listed practical concerns such as verification of Opera accounts, maintenance of material, and approval of discharges and retirements of artists as well. Cave assessed that Choiseul wanted a new superintendency with clearly defined power, particularly "avec de plein pouvoirs pour le president de cette Commission" "with full powers for the president of this Commission".

He suggested to the Ministre that Choiseul must be told, confidentially, that the institution of the Commission, in relation to the Opera, could not be modified nor its powers extended since the direction of the Opera had not changed. French authorities had been uncomfortable without legal control o f the printed,. Before the assassination attempt set off attacks on the too-. In an Opera arrite o f 15 August , which spelled out the new conditions. Dentu, , Under the heading "Les premiers coups porte a la liberte," Krakovitch discusses the reappearance of political censorship i. R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner.

Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission. The stipulation of "five days before the performance" for final submission of the. With this condition, and with a. No work can be represented in the theater of the Academie Royale de Musique without our prior authorization.

Before being rehearsed, every work, opera or ballet, must be submitted to us so that one may examine whether the rehearsals can take place without inconvenience; and ten days before the performance, it must be submitted to us again so that one may decide whether it can be performed or whether it will take place or not by making modifications or suppressions [my emphasis]. As these documents attest, Veron was clearly important to the acceptance and.

Article The article states that the Commission des Theatres royaux will be consulted "[ Le chef de la Division des Beaux-Arts pourra assister a ces deliberations avec voix consultative seulement. The head of the Division of Beaux-Arts will take part in these deliberations with consultative voice only. But it was freedom with well-understood constraints.

One very powerful constraint was repressive censorship, or at least the threat. However, as I will illustrate in the following chapters, the text of this manuscript differs in significant ways from the text that was actually sung at the premiere, and even more from that sung in first-season performances that followed. She notes that there were at least twenty-three political "affaires" of repressive censorship between and ; the first important one-prior to the prohibiting of Roi s 'amuse—occurred in October , when the police banned the play Le Proces d'un marechal de France by Charles Desire Dupeuty and Louis-Marie Fontan Most works that were banned were those considered disrepectful of royal authority.

Hugo, in his preface to Marion. Delorme , discussed the often-stringent self-censorship that existed when formal. In July , while La Juive was being rehearsed see pp. For the last four years, it has been obliged to apply this article and forbid the performance of several plays. With manuscripts not being submitted to it, it could make this decision only when directors.

Reactions to this circular were sharp, including a speech by Scribe at a meeting of the. Societe des Auteurs dramatiques on 22 July As Society president, Scribe. In view of this administrative threat of further repressive censorship, and the. It is possible. As a result, some people had expenses which could not be indemnified. The theatrical works which are not submitted will be banned purely and simply, when, because of their content, they will deserve the application of the decree; and you will be able to ascribe to yourselves only the damages which will result from a wasted mise en scene.

Although they had approved the. Commission on 25 May , and formally after reading the libretto and attending. Scribe figures centrally in our discussion of La Juive since evidence shows that. Moreover, evidence also suggests that. MBy the time of the August arrete and the September law, the initial stages of the production of Les Huguenots were already under way. But, as its premiere was not until February , its later pre-performance stages were affected by a strengthened Commission and a less powerful director Duponchel was "on probation" as director , as well as by the censorship law.

Leon Halevy, in his biography o f the composer, gives a full, rich account of. In his. Two notes written in what appear to be different hands include the verse for the chorus "Hatons nous" of Act I and the first three numbers of Eudoxie and Rachel of Act III that were omitted by the second performance see pp.

Venaient ensuite les details du vers, les innombrables modifications prosodiques, les exigences, pour lui absolues, du rhythme. Scribe, homme vraiment superieur, du commerce le plus charmant et du caractere le plus sur, avait, avec la passion du theatre, celle du travail, mais du travail toujours nouveau. Mais, quand il reconnaissait que la piece et le musicien trouvaient egalement leur compte a ce qui avait ete ajoute ou modifie, il applaudissait le prem ier et remerciait avec effusion.

In the original scenario, the scene took place in Goa, and the inquisition held the place that the Council of Constance occupies in the work today. The original musical conception itself changed, because the distribution of roles that was projected, but not maintained, had given to the score an entirely different character: in these first drafts, which were abandoned, Adolphe Nourrit was the lover instead of the father, and the role of father was to be distributed to a bass voice, to Levasseur.

Nourrit, the superior artist, a man of such excellent counsel and good taste, took a great part in these basic revisions. How many times my brother and he came with me to discuss, to sort out these modifications agreed to by Scribe. Understanding with exquisite tact the true role of the dramatic poet at the Opera, he stepped aside to subordinate himself to the inspirations of the composer and to those of eminent artists, his interpreters!

It was in the summer of ; my brother soon had finished the first two acts of la Juive, and, successively, the three others. When there was agreement on the fundamentals, then began this partial recasting of the work to which my brother submitted his librettos; since he assimilated them, he created his own, individual thing; he was embodied in them, so to speak; he absorbed them into his musical creation: here, there was a scene in which the rhythm had to change because it did not respond to his thought; there, in place of recitative, an aria was necessary; here, in place of recitative, a chorus and he had the rare gift of making the vocal masses work admirably.

He also had the eminent faculty of melding the recitative into the melodic fabric of the work, while keeping its character; there, the duo had to be a trio or an aria had to be placed in a finale; here, it was necessary to express a feeling which the poet had failed to render and which inspired in him a moving melody.

Then came the details of the verse, the innumerable modifications of prosody, the exigencies of rhythm, which were. Juive and other operas of his brother, we must take into account that he wrote it after. He was continuously saying: "Rhythmic, inflected lines; no uniform length!

A word of explanation is necessary here. Scribe, a truly superior man, the most charming and the most trustworthy in character, had a passion for the theater and for work, but the work had to be always new. It is one of these fantasies in his passion, which can be easily overlooked, as passion itself is worthy of all honor and praise.

He did not like to dwell a long time on the same work, and his marvelous ease to conceive and execute had not allowed him to do so. For everything else, it would not be reasonable to demand that a man so busy, so overloaded with engagements and work whose promised works payable by contract would be expected continuously by two or three theaters , occupy himself, over the course of a year after he had delivered a poem to the composer he had chosen, with incessant modifications in the service of its requirements, its caprices, or even the necessities of its art.

Certainly he would not have refused this sacrifice to my brother, whom he loved, this sacrifice, if he had asked for it; but my brother had on his side a cooperator who was always ready: I purposely avoid the term collaborator, and I use the most appropriate expression for the modest task that I assigned myself, a task which, I can say, was not exempt from self-sacrifice and whose least quality was selflessness. A tacit agreement, then, was naturally given to each other on this point. Moreover, previous relations were established between Scribe and me, and a new circumstance drew us closer a little later: Scribe was named to the Academie frangaise [in ] to replace Arnault, the author of Marius a Mintumes, Germanicus, and Fables; for his reception speech, he had wanted to ask me for several documents, several anecdotes on the life and works of a man who had devoted a constant and affectionate goodwill towards me, and to whom I had been tutor and assistant at the Ecole polytechnique up to the day of his death, in the chair of literature in which he had replaced Andrieux for three years.

I freed the fecund and ingenious writer from a great care, it is true, but he honored me with a trust that touched me; at the same time, I deeply appreciated the freedom to contribute to the success of works that were dear to me. One must not believe that Scribe was indifferent: he would never have accepted a change badly made or that, in his mind, would harm the play. But, when he recognized that the play and the musician equally profited from what had been added or modified, he immediately applauded and was very thankful.

I experienced this a thousand times. Leon did not lay claim, however, to. In the same account quoted. At the same time, he reinforced the idea. Ou est done votre frere pour que je le remercie? Les deux auteurs du poeme me serrerent la main; ils auraient fait aussi bien, mieux sans. Souvenirs d'un ami p o u r joindre a. Where is your brother so that I can thank him? Under the pseudonym Paul Smith, he wrote the article "F.

Dans toute sa carriere. Georges exerted as Opera librettists. His account suggests that the "tacit agreement". The authors of these libretti thanked you for the important services you rendered them, but the public knew nothing about them. With the exception of Dilettante d'Avignon, you have never given an opera alone with your brother, and this was neither his fault nor yours.

You did not demand better of one or the other than to be a participant, but the strange conditions that exist in the arrangements of the theater were always against it. Throughout his career, vour brother has known only three collaborators. Nourrit is credited with having chosen the role of Eleazar,. II y avait au quatrieme acte un finale; il nous demanda de la remplacer par un air. II voulait choisir les syllabes les plus sonores, les plus favorables a sa voix. Scribe, genereux. There was a finale in the fourth act; he asked us to replace it with an aria.

I wrote the music of the aria on the given situation; Nourrit asked Scribe for the authorization to write the words of the aria, whose music was written. He wanted to choose the syllables that were the most sonorous and the most suitable for his voice. Scribe, generous because of his wealth, lent himself with good grace to the desire of the singer, and a few days later Nourrit brought us the words of the aria "Rachel, quand du Seigneur la grace tut61aire. Loyalty to the singer, particularly after his tragic suicide which many blamed on the.

Opera administration , may have biased Halevy and other writers to give Nourrit. But, as Halevy discussed, Nourrit also developed the. Concerning La Tempete, Halevy , n. All the rest was the invention of Nourrit. Heinz and Gudrun Becker, trans. Mark Violette London: Christopher Helm, , Basic ideas about the working relationship between composer and librettist can. Although a certain "territonalism" and creative opposition should be expected in their. In a number of letters-although written years after L a Juive—.

Scribe and Halevy address each other as "Mon cher voisin et collaborateur" or "Mon. Scribe as "author" and "collaborator" of La Juive. Scribe, a seasoned writer for many of the Parisian theaters by the early s,. Scribe often relied on other writers. Some of these for operatic and non-operatic. Saint-Georges, were credited as co-authors with Scribe; others went unnamed, acting. In his discussion of. According to. In these cases, however, Meyerbeer often stepped over. Also see Karin Pendle, Eugene Scribe, 16; Pendle notes that Scribe worked with approximately literary collaborators.

I have also been asked often why I do not work alone: to this I answer that I probably have neither the mind nor the talent; but had I had them, I would have still preferred our alliance and our literary brotherhood. The few works that I have written alone have been drudgery for me; those that I have made with you were a pleasure [ Such action m ay have contributed to what seems to have been a testy.

Consideration o f the working relationship between Scribe and Halevy must. This implication would seem to be strengthened by the fact. According to Elizabeth Bartlet, however, the non-inclusion o f Halevy may have had. Thus his. August , the librettist had written and presented a draft scenario and perhaps.

In fact,. Schlesinger alerted Meyerbeer that Halevy had solicited his help in securing the. Einige Stunden spater kam Halevy zu m ir und bat mich Ihnen zu schreiben das Poeme von Scribe welches Sie demselben zuriickgeben wollten doch recht bald zuriickzuschicken da Veron es gem sehen wollte, ich fragte ihn woher er das wisse und er sagte nur Veron habe ihn rufen lassen und ihn geffagt, in wieviel Zeit er eine Oper machen konne, habe ihm von diesem Poeme das Sie zuriickgeben wollen gesprochen und ihm gesagt dass er es sehr gem sehen mochte.

Sie sehen also daraus dass Veron der m ir iiber die ganze Angelgenheit das hochste Stillschweigen versprochen ein wenig Furcht hat, und daher glaube ich um so m ehr dass Ihre Anwesenheit hier, ware sie auch nur 24 Stunden, hochst vortheilhaft sein konnte. Briefwechsel, H, "A few hours later Halevy came to me and asked me to write to you to send him the poem by Scribe, which you wanted to give back to him, really quickly since Veron is eager to see it; I asked him how he knew this and he said only that Veron had sent for him and asked him how long it would take him to write an opera, and had spoken to him of this poem that you want to send back and told him that he would very much.

Yet in the account by Monnais, Veron is given a stronger role. He claims that Veron authorized Halevy to ask Scribe for the. Meyerbeer for the poem and I will do it at once. You see also from this that Veron who promised me the utmost secrecy in this whole affair is a little apprehensive, and for that reason I believe all the more that your presence here, were it only for 24 hours, could be most beneficial. Knopf, , , makes the claim that the libretto was offered to Rossini, but gives no evidence for his statement.

Halevy, "It was M. Veron, then director of the Opera, who had authorized your brother and this act is one of his best claims to fame to request Scribe to give him a poem. Allow me to notice a curious remark that I got from Halevy, about which his illustrious collaborator would have laughed later. Halevy was relatively untried as. Comique in Halevy had worked with Scribe on Manon Lescaut, writing music.

But with such a paltry. Therefore, it would seem that in creating La Juive and in seeing it through the. This implication is reinforced by contemporary. He had worked with the librettists Saint-. Georges, P. Carmouche, de Courcy, and his brother on works at the Opera-. Comique, as well as with P.

Giannone on Clan, performed at the Theatre-Italien. W ith others, he had written four early unproduced works, Les Bohemiennes, Marco. Curzio, Pygmalion, Les Deux pavilions, and an incomplete Erostraste. It is. Moreover, as c h efd u chant at the Opera-Comique from to , and. A description by Veron of a typical final meeting with composer and. Halevy was also consulted about who could go on in place of Nourrit when the tenor was injured during the fourth act of a performance of Robert, but Halevy left the decision to the director, as Veron noted.

Le chef de la copie de musique faisait tous les changements, toutes les suppressions, et le public du moins ne critiquait jam ais les paroles et la musique supprimees. Undoubtedly the types of composer-librettist quarrels reported by Veron. The librettists pretend that taking out a phrase, a word, renders the poem unintelligible since their work is strongly bound together. The musician resists with no less obstinacy: his score, he says, cannot be cut into fragments; everything is combined, prepared, everything holds together; one number acts as foil to another number, a chorus highlights an aria: these are excessive discussions.

During these tempests and storms I was appearing impassive, and as these quarrels continued I devoted all my time to my polite and kind correspondence with all the newspaper editors. Again, this was to labor for the success of the work. Finally, we arrived at a conclusion and everyone ended in agreement. The head of music-copying made all the changes, all the suppressions, and the public at least never criticized the suppressed words and music. Veron hinted at friendly relations with the composer in frequent references to "mon. He also spoke o f an artistic rapport with Scribe in his. Basic Stages of Creation and First Production c.

December c. October As noted above, Leon. Halevy claimed that "few opera libretti would be subjected to more transformations". Halevy, Demiers souvenirs, "The circumstances that precede the appearance of a lyrical work, under the conditions of our grand theater, are often interesting, and a book that would recount the history o f an opera before its birth, the various phases through which the work and its authors go, could be very curious; there is a chasm between the original idea of an opera and its performance.

See discussion below in Chapter 4, pp. Veron, who adopts and receives it. Dates in extant draft. September" [] at the fifth scene o f the same act. The reference in the Schlesinger letter dated 21 August to a "poeme". If this is true, the draft verse of n. By January , the copying of the performing parts—and thus the planning. WBN, n. RE also contains copying records for operas and ballets put on at the Paris Opera between and or , including Guillaume Tell.

In itemizing the parts, usually divided among the pages into sections for solo, chorus, and orchestra, Lebome does not always list the copyists assigned to them. There are many clues about the progress of a work that can be extracted from this registre. It is possible that rehearsals had already begun before July.

Since the copying. During the preparation. A full description by Veron gives a. Tout le chant repete assis. Pendant ces deux ou trois. The report referred to "les artistes," who "speak enthusiastically" of the first act that they had rehearsed together several days prior. That the early rehearsals with the composer, including the private meetings. In the first rehearsals, the composer is at the piano and indicates the various rhythms of the ensemble pieces to the singing masters and the artists.

The principal roles [soloists] study the arias, duets, trios- everything they have to sing-with the composer separately. When one act is sight-read, the rehearsals au quatuor begin under the direction of the conductor; all string instruments, violins, violas, cellos, and basses, perform successively this accompaniment au quatuor. As soon as the entire work is learned by the choruses and subjects, the general rehearsals for orchestra are tackled. All the singing is practiced seated. During the two or three rehearsals for orchestra, the copying errors are corrected.

The studies of an opera are finished by new rehearsals au quatuor with the action and the mise en scene; then, finally, with the full orchestra, scenery, lighting, and costumes. All these tedious, tiresome studies demand great firmness on the part of the conductor and chorus master. See Appendix H for a copy and transcription of these payment records.

It is doubtful that Schlesinger would have signed. The preparation of La Juive most likely followed the stages plotted by Veron. Nouvelle of mid-August suggested that the last acts were in rehearsal; one of. According to a Nouvelle of 5 October , La Juive was projected to begin "en. At the top of the first page of this. Armstrong "Le Prophete," ff. A report in Revue musicale in late December confirms that late-stage rehearsals had. Correspondence and reports among the Opera administration refer to some. Minister that a repetition generate o f the fifth act with costumes would take place the.

The date of La Juive"s premiere was apparently postponed at least once, and. As with other operas given. Projections o f the premiere. Veron, who communicated the progress of a work to newspapers and journals in the. But it seems that unexpected delays. Pendant pres de quinze jours apres la demiere repetition generate, nous nous rendions tous les matins, Halevy et moi, pres de Mile Falcon, pour savoir si elle pourrait chanter le lendemain. Nous vivions ainsi dans la plus grande anxiete. Among administrative correspondence, there is no reference to Falcon, but a tetter.

February confirms that this date had been relatively secure. Because a dress rehearsal. In this way we lived in a state of greatest anxiety. The public was not pleased with these delays, against which neither intelligence nor will could do anything. R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission of th e copyright ow ner. The length of the rehearsal period leading up to the premiere was not atypical:. Halevy describes his brother as working feverishly on La Juive, driven by a passion.

But, as suggested by the evidence in the autograph score and the. There are a number of staved pages of the autograph on. There is evidence. Foumiture de copie, dated 8 April , includes an itemization of the types of. Coupures, retablissements, et changements successifs, faits apres chacune des 15 repetitions generales.

Since the first three performances took place in late February 23, 25, 27 February. The copying of. Act III could not have been done prior to 25 February, because the first three. This registre lists the numbers, which were subsequently crossed out; next to them,. Press reports o f the sale and publication o f the libretto and scores by M aurice. Schlesinger give further clues for constructing a timetable for La Juive. Le Corsaire. I21In AN: AJ, records of extra players hired for opera performances indicate that the change was made before June for this month of performances, the only extra performer specified for the four performances of La Juive was the organist Benoit; a guitarist was hired for three performances of an unnamed opera, but this was most likely not La Juive.

This report repeated the news announced in "[un] de nos joumaux. This date cannot be completely secure. Undoubtedly preparation of the published score had begun months before, but it is possible that it was not completed by the advertisement date. Geneva: Editions Minkoff, , II, In the Registre du depot legal of the Bibliotheque Nationale, there is no entry for the Schlesinger piano-vocal score or full score. Instead, there are entries for the Schlesinger morceaux detaches, entered in April and identified as "La Juive nos.

Material that is crossed out in the autograph often in the red crayon typically used by. Lebome matches material that is not included in the full score. It is likely that. Although some evidence points to the likelihood that Halevy had written a long. In Journal de Paris et des departemens 23 March Leich-Galland, Dossier, 98 , the writer claimed that he had learned that the introduction "avait ete abregee," suggesting that it had been shortened from the overture already written.

As revealed by RE and the performing parts, the "ouverture" first copied was the short introduction included in the Schlesinger full score. Halevy" would be performed for the king and queen of Belgium. Halevy may have chosen to include it in the piano-vocal score in anticipation of the. Schlesinger did issue.

Based on the clean, "untouched" appearance o f the cahiers o f orchestral parts o f the. September copy work , it seems that this overture was rarely performed at the. Because this study aims to focus on the version of the opera staged by the. Paris Opera during the premiere season, it will consider the "stabilized opera" to be. Therefore, only the alterations that. In the following chapter, I m m my attention to the ideologies and guiding.

Halevy Berlin: Schlesinger, ? Both this record and the paper type suggest that the part was that copied in preparation for the October-November performance s of the long overture. Also see other orchestral performing parts, mostly copied on Chamez paper, with page counts equalling those listed in RE M at. What emerges is a clear idea that the artists were not merely fitting their work.

Among the creators of La Juive, there existed a true. An ideological rapprochement, linked to generational spirit and thought,. Adolphe Nourrit. The generation to which they belonged, labelled by some historians. There is a generation composed of those bom at the end of the last century, still children or too young under the Empire, which liberated. This generation, [ The Revolution of , to which this generation had so greatly contributed by its fifteen years o f struggle, was made for it to a considerable extent and was the harbinger o f its accession.

It is up to us, jeunes gens, children of the century and o f liberty, to speed the dawning of happiness among nations, to make the security of thrones coincide with the freedom of peoples; already, we have great tasks to perform. Spitzer also includes quotes characterizing the generation by Felicite-Robert de Lamennais , Fran? M odem historians o f the Restoration period and French literature have added. The specific designation of the generation. Restoration" but excludes those "too old to have participated in the imperial. X V n i in "; thus, he chooses the birthdates and as historical.

Ferdinand Brunot Paris: A. He also refers to other boundaries-e. In addition to cataclysmic historical events—the collapse o f the Empire and the. Many of the "articulate minority,". Charlemagne, and Bourbon under the Restoration , as well as the Ecole normale, the. Among the most. This suspension, along with the. Other important circles were the Carbonari, a group o f political activists. Restoration, and the Saint-Simonians, who began a social and philosophical movement.

Lettre aux Français

Based on the birthdates and the biographical profiles o f Fromental and Leon. Halevy, both belong to the "Generation of " as defined by Spitzer and other. The events of left a profound imprint on. Ignoring parental. Au cri etouffe de surprise que je poussai, mon ffere accourut. Or, voici le spectacle qui frappait nos yeux a cette petite fenetre de la me Michel-Lepelletier, la seule qui fut ouverte dans la me deserte et silencieuse.

In , Leon added to the self-. But perhaps most crucial to. At my stifled cry of surprise my brother rushed up. It was the first of April The Senate had voted the deposition of the Emperor the day before, and the surrender of Paris had been signed. Two days before, our hearts had thrilled to the account of the heroic defense of Paris by the students of the Ecole polytechnique on the hills of Saint-Chaumont.

But here was the spectacle which caught our eyes in this tiny window on the rue Michel-Lepelletier, the only one that was open on the deserted and silent street. A long squadron of Cossacks marched slowly past: not one open shop, not one inhabitant at the windows and doors; everywhere the appearance of mourning and distress. The enemy army entered Paris and this detachment of cavalrymen with savage looks came to check out this quarter of the vast city.

The iron of their long spears came right up to us. Several raised their heads and looked surprised to see two heads of adolescents, the only two which appeared in the densely populated street, who were scared to death. Of these two young unknowns who looked at them with gloomy amazement, one would later send to their distant country several of these songs which had made their way around the world as well as the beautiful choruses of Charles VI, whose patriotic inspiration had perhaps been bom in the memories of this painful day. Leon's categorization as a reform-minded representative o f his generation are his.

He contributed to two periodicals representative. Leroux and Paul-Frangois Dubois the latter a pupil o f Cousin. Leon was among Le. Producteur's ten founders, who also included Olinde Rodrigues , the man. December Among his signed contributions are articles heavily weighted in. Frenchmen to unite, put the past behind, and march "comme un seul homme" towards.

Illustrative of this view are his. While his brother attended the lycee Charlemagne,. Prix de Rome in , and which hired him as professor o f harmony in and. Yet Fromental did associate with many. When the two brothers were living together on. Also see V. Isaac Pereire According to Leon Halevy, Fromental not only joined this.

Conservatoire teaching, his work as chef du chant at the Theatre-Italien, and his own. Despite the fact that Jews were. According to Zosa Szajkowski, Jews as a group did not participate. Moreover, their limited political action stemmed from. The attraction to Saint-Simonisme of the Halevys and other young Jews was.

Prescriptions for an improved society. Pantheistic elements. Liszt and Berlioz are among those most frequently discussed in historical treatments. Sainte Barbe. Szajkowski notes that "with few exceptions Jews were not as yet accepted on equal terms by the Christian population, even by liberals. Napoleon, the Messeniermes. Memorized by countless youths who were "frantic. The brothers also collaborated with Halevy,. Although in many biographical statements Scribe appears removed from. Restoration in commentary that embodies similar sentiments to Leon H alevy's.

Shortly before the creation. Neither musicologists nor theater historians portray Scribe as a man driven by. The topicality of many of his more than plays and opera. Albert D. Vandam, 2 vols. Scribe has often been reproached, perhaps with some justice, for being so little moved by the tremendous political and social upheavals about him. This comparative indifference to the great changes taking place in the very life of the country, his ambition to please the public, and his conception of the theatre as a financial institution, were elements in his make-up which to a certain extent excluded that comprehension of and sympathy with the fundamental truths and principles o f life without which an artist cannot be truly great.

Even among those who allow deeper meaning in his dramatic works, there is a. See " Augustin-Eugene Scribe," Pierre Larousse, Grand dictionnaire universel du XDC siecle, franqais, historique, geographique, mythologique, bibliographique, litteraire, artistique, scientifique [ It was. This latter meaning perhaps has its roots in the. As quoted by the encyclopedia, Balzac remarked: "Comment puis-je apprendre aux bourgeois que le sang de mes veines ne ressemble point au leur?

I n a recent article on grand. In autobiographical statements appearing in correspondence and personal. London: Macmillan, , II, At the end of , shortly after the Restoration of Louis. X V m , he passionately displayed the anti-Bourbon fervor that united his generation; in. His anticipation. In this early passage there emerges a.

Cette annee [ Les Allies sont entres; Paris a ete pris; le pays ran? Mes annees de droit sont expirees. II faudrait maintenant, et selon le voeu de ma mere, me faire avocat. Une revolution donne a la societe une face toute nouvelle, des besoins tout nouveaux. As Scribe defined a new seriousness about making the theater his profession,.

The following year, he. The Allies have come; Paris has been taken; the country ransomed; the Bourbons established on the throne: all the misfortunes at the same time. I was without doubt badly inspired, because I have had only failures. I have written with Dupin Barbanera-booed! My years of law [study] have expired. It would be necessary now and, according to the wish of my mother, to make me a lawyer. I sense in myself neither the taste nor the courage for it. With the reign that is commencing and under the heavy sceptre that is weighing on us, there will not be freedom of the press nor freedom of speech.

On the contrary, the theater can offer me a more certain career to make the most of. A revolution gives to society an entirely new face, with entirely new needs. Vaudeville, the only genre to which I am devoted, can be considered under another point of view than has been made up to the present. In place of following the paths of my colleagues and imitating them as 1 have done, I want to try to be myself, to have my own genre, style, and theater.

I know that I can vegetate only one or two years more before succeeding. But I will succeed; I sense the strength in myself, despite my misfortunes and my catastrophes of this year. Up until now, I have occupied myself in theater only as a diversion and for my pleasure; from now on, I am making it my profession, I do not want any other.

I have the means to live and wait for successes: I will wait for them. And, whether I succeed or not, I will at least have a great advantage over many others, that is, to be free and independent, and not to have to solicit jobs, help, or pensions from a government that I detest and despise. Le public qui avait deserte le Vaudeville y est revenu. As many have emphasized, Scribe sensed the profit-making potential in works that. This is clear. Tous les directeurs sont riches: pourquoi les auteurs ne le seraient-ils pas? Ce doit etre et ce sera, tant que cela dependra de moi du moins!

Also, it is the first big success I have had to date. The public which had deserted the Vaudeville has returned. May heaven grant that I keep them there! That is because they understood matters badly. There is a way to have talent and money at the same time: the one does not exclude the other. All the directors are rich: why not the authors? Because the former do not share with us a portion of the riches that we make for them? That may be, and that will change, at least if it depends on me! Since God gives me the strength and the means to make law, I will do it: If I ever have successes I say that the public will pay a great deal for them, as will the directors.

Scribe realized his dreams o f commercial success by demanding a fee for his works as. Because such a critique has colored historical assessments, it has served to obscure. In commentary of the s, well after he had become an established. Revolution unlike his collaborators, the Halevys and Nourrit , speaking instead o f his.

I neither blame nor approve the causes of it. I have never been drawn by politics, but by literature, and it is only under this last report that I shall examine the consequences of a change which should be more bothersome than useful to me. From the time of the Restoration, whose shortcomings and ridicules I sang, I. As if wanting to make a further point, Scribe adds "II est v ra i Bonnefon suggests that Scribe checks himself by.

Revolution, Bonnefon reports that during the days o f July Scribe stayed safely away. Napoleon during the Empire although he contributed to the Napoleonic fervor of the. At the end of , Scribe again complained of the detrimental effects political. He railed against newspapers which exacerbated. Liberal et classique en , je suis encore liberal et classique en In this context, his comments which suggest a thoroughly apolitical stance are. In both political and literary terms. By designating. I who have not changed a bit for fifteen years and who have remained stationary when everyone else has moved forward, I now find myself behind the times and people call me out o f date, prejudiced old man, rococo, etc.

Liberal and classical in , I am still liberal and classical in I therefore have against me the republicans, the Carlists, and the romantics, in a word the ultras of all types. His criticism of the romantics, along with the implication that he remained a. A letter that Scribe wrote the day after the. J'aim e la piece ou brillent des beautes de prem ier ordre.

Diable, the melodramatic shock effects and historical local color o f his grand operas,. I do not know if it will have the success of Hemani, but it seems superior to me.

Aïe Aïe Aïe !

The same poet and the same genius are in these two works, but in this one, there is great progress in the development of the action, the management of the subject, and above all in dramatic interest. Scribe cites a few dramatic problems in the play, to which he then offers some solutions. The two would later collaborate on La Muette de Portici French youths, "confided everything" to Scribe, according to Legouve.

He and his contemporaries preferred Delavigne to Lamartine, whom they also admired, because Lamartine was a royalist who attacked Bonaparte. Quatre milles galeriens enchaines deux a deux passant ainsi une revue-[ Four thousand galley slaves chained two by two passing as if in a parade-[ I will never forget this awful scene and all day and all night in my dreams I saw marching past this long, immense column of infamy of all types.

Academie Royale. At the. Scribe later offered clues to his fundamental philosophy in his speech. Furthermore, Scribe offered the thesis, hotly contested by. Eugene Scribe, 5 vols. Scribe had been presented as a candidate for the Academie as early as , but he was not elected until October , following the death of Arnault. Arvin, French Theater, 23, reports that clerical members of the Academie had voted against Scribe because of the irreligious nature of some of his plays, including Madame de Sainte-Agnes Because Scribe took well over a year to write his speech he complained in correspondence about his slow progress , his formal address came much later than the time of his election.

Villemain, that theater of earlier decades, particularly the comedie, had not reflected. Before the august body of Academicians, Scribe portrayed himself with strong. Arnault as a vehicle for illustrating how the artist or homme de lettres had been a. Because Arnault had aligned himself with the Comte de Provence later. Louis XVHI in the days when an homme de lettres needed the protection o f a grand.

Scribe relates how Napoleon, "qui avait en litterature des idees aussi. Apres la catastrophe des Cent Jours, M. Arnault was sent into exile; and, strange as it may seem, he was deprived of the office you had elected him to. Arnault from the Institute. Violating the sanctuary of letters, forgetting that the greatest of our privileges is that of being irremovable, that literary fame is not revocable, the order came down to suppress Marius a Mintumes and Les Venitiens; and by virtue of an ordinance countersigned by a minister, it was decided that these two great successes had never existed.

Dramatiques in support o f this form of censorship in lieu of arbitrary repressive. Scribe makes further controversial statements that reveal a belief in the power. The theater, because audiences sought diversion in it, had in fact represented the. His long. After his stated commitment. Bonnefon described Scribe as the creator, or "vulgarizer," of light, sentimental. In the same way, during the Restoration, when all of Europe had been oppressing you, you were reminded of the time when you made the laws of Europe, and the past became a consolation for the present.

However, his case too was dropped, the courts understanding that if he was guilty of supporting terrorism than so was the British state. Despite the repressive dress codes and savage Islamist laws it became apparent that the FSA was only operating under the authority of the more powerful al-Qaeda rebels. Investigating the situation further, veteran journalist Gareth Porter concludes from a range of sources that in the provinces of Idlib and Aleppo every rebel organization is in fact part of a military structure controlled and dominated by al-Nusra.

The reality began to emerge in December of when US-backed rebels, supplied with TOW missiles, teamed up with Nusra and fought under their command in order to capture the Wadi al-Deif base. Nusra, he told the New York Times , allowed militias vetted by the United States to appear independent, so that they would continue to receive American supplies. This all comes down to the fact that the savage and brutal al-Qaeda fighters were proving to be militarily effective, leaving a trail of torture and atrocities, and battlefield successes, in their wake.

Several rebel groups, 5 of which belong to the FSA, have recently united under the leadership of the former emir of the al-Qaeda-linked Ahrar al-Sham. At least by as far back as August of , the best US intelligence assessments were reporting that the jihadists and extremists were controlling and steering the course of the opposition. Weapons from the former Libyan stockpiles were shipped from Benghazi to Syria and into the hands of the Syrian rebels.

DIA chief Michael Flynn confirmed that his agency had sent a constant stream of warnings to the civilian administration between and saying that the jihadists were in control of the opposition. So what Russia is bombing in actuality is an al-Qaeda, extremist dominated opposition embedded with CIA-backed rebels operating under their control. Except that the people who were being supplied were al-Nusra and Al Qaeda and the extremist elements of jihadis coming from other parts of the world.

So it should be no wonder why the US tried to push through a provision including al-Nusra in the current ceasefire agreement, nor why they would seek to protect their most viable ally in pursuance of their Syria policy. It should be no wonder that it has been, and continues to be, official US policy to protect al-Qaeda. Cockburn, Patrick.

This year, President Obama had more important things to do and made a historical visit to Cuba. Trump, Clinton, Cruz and Kasich were all thrilled to bits about Israel. They outbid each other in their subservience to Israel. He criticized the bombing of hospitals, schools and refugee camps in the war with Hamas and demanded an end of the blockade on Gaza. He, at least, was honest and did not pay rhetorical lip service to an occupation regime that apparently shares the same values as the US.

Donald Trump , the front-runner of the Republican Party, welcomed without any marked enthusiasm by 18 Israel fans, turned to upstage Hillary Clinton, Ted Cruz, not to speak of John Kasich. Trump also wants to cancel the Iran deal. That she wants to see Benyamin Netanyahu right away after becoming President does not speak in her favor. She supports a memorandum that would boost military aid to Israel. She reiterated her tough stance on Iran, calling for sanctioning any Iranian violation of the nuclear deal not excluding military force.

Years ago, Clinton threatened Iran with total annihilation if the country would attack Israel. No Iranian leader has ever called for an attack on Israel. She appealed to the emotions by mentioning the wave of stabbings by Palestinians and blamed the Palestinian leadership for inciting violence, celebrating terrorists and rewarding the families of murderers. She denounced again the BDS campaign. Cruz wants to rip-up the Iran deal and block federal funding to BDS supporters. Before him, Netanyahu has also drawn such an absurd analogy. From this adulation of the State of Israel, one might get the impression that the candidates are competing for the highest office in Israel and not in the US.

It seems as if the presidential candidates do not care about their own country and the American people. First count dead toll resulted in 14 people killed at the airport. Soon the police might find one of those conveniently lost passports or IDs, from Syria, Iraq or Yemen, or another one of those terror-spreading countries the west is trying hard to bring under control? Fear is the name of the game. In the meantime, the Belgian government has ordered a clamp-down on police and journalists reporting on the case. That must by all means be prevented. Could it not be a constructed coincidence?

A make-believe? The traditional CIA-FBI and local security forces are not reliable; they work on orders; they have their screenplays mapped out. Is this a benign sign of waking up? No doubt in Belgium too. This Brussels horror attack is a double-whammy for the instigators. It may convince people becoming increasingly more doubtful, and — Brussels being the headquarters of the EU — it may give the ultra-ultra neolibs of the EU Parliament and EU Commission an extra boost.

Interesting — how two neoliberal and neo-colonial neighbors, pals in extracting their fortunes in West Africa, can cooperate when it goes to achieving more evil objectives. People are being killed. There is no mercy. The Evil empire delivered already multiple examples. And they keep coming, as we watch in awe. Where and what horror will be next? Germany — Berlin, Munich, Frankfurt — or rather a lesser known place needing attention? To what are German leaders amenable to please the Masters in Washington? Fortunately, there is Putin and Russia.

Russian people have time and again brought sacrifices to save humanity, intervening for peace, far beyond protecting their own borders. This low-horizon high-caliber world elite keeps using the same pattern of aggression and the same lie-propaganda justification for their aggressions — and the people keep falling into the same trap. Will there be no stopping until the monster itself is stopped?

We are far from it. Consumerism and oblivion for comfort has made the western world brain-dead, literally. Does humanity need a bloodbath to wake up — or is there hope that truth will reach the conscience of individuals who then bond in expanding solidarity — in such a way that policemen and women, as well as soldiers will start recognizing that they are used by this elusive group of elitists, the cream of the crop of humankind, the chief manipulators of the universe, as mere cannon fodder, or at best, as slaves to defend their obscene wealth and power?

When that happens large scale across the globe, and in rare and isolated cases it did, hope for change towards a peaceful cohabitation of nations and people may be on the horizon. He is also a former World Bank staff and worked extensively around the world in the fields of environment and water resources. Friday marks the anniversary of the Parliamentary abolition of the slave trade in the British Empire.

Britain generated an estimated equivalent of four trillion pounds on the unpaid labour of slaves. Britain owes its very existence as a first world nation to the African slave trade. Fathers became ostentatiously wealthy constructing slave ships or owning huge plantations in the Caribbean; when they died, their sons inherited that wealth and chartered banks that have endured to this day such as Barclays Bank, they built factories, British railroad enterprises, invested in government securities, and speculated in new financial instruments.

In due course, they donated their slave profits to build libraries, museums, botanical gardens, and British universities. Slavery did not only build Britain, it civilized her. There were no street lamps or paved streets in London and garbage and human waste were simply thrown into the streets. Most houses were made of wood, mud and dung.

All of this occurred at a time when the great empires of the world were Black African empires, and the educational and cultural centers of the world were predominately African. Whilst Europe was experiencing its Dark Age, which was a long period of intellectual, economic and cultural backwardness, Africans were experiencing an almost continent-wide renaissance. Between the early s and the early s, millions of slaves were kidnapped from Ghana, Mali and accross West Africa.

Beyond any doubt it was the slave trade that raised London from an uncivilized medieval city to be the richest and most prosperous city in the world. The processing and distribution of produce such as tobacco, sugar and cotton produced on plantations resulted in massive investment in British quaysides, warehouses, factories, trading houses and banks. Sir Richard Neave, who was the director of the bank for half a century, was also the chairman of the plunderous Society of West India Merchants. This investment included the building of roads and canals, of wharves and harbours, of all new equipment needed by farmers and manufacturers, and of all the new ships sold to merchants in a period of one year.

The modern civilized world owes its very existence to the most uncivilized institution of slavery. I n fact, slavery is not a product of Western civilization; Western civilization is a product of slavery. By fuelling the industrial revolution and propelling the mercantile expansion of the British Empire, slavery built the foundations of modern British civilization. Throughout the ages monuments have epitomized and defined civilizations. Famous London landmarks and areas are also deeply intertwined with slavery.

For instance, Sir Hans Sloane, whose statue stands in Sloane Square, was a principle shareholder of the plunderous Royal Africa Company, whose sigil was an Elephant and Castle, which gave its name to an area in south London. Museums are a quintessential symbol of modern civilization. Prior to the era of British slavery, museums tended to be small and private, open only to the aristocracy of a given nation.

During the height of British slavery in the 19th century, the modern museum as we know it began to take shape. With plunder streaming in from all corners of the British Empire, the modern museum was born. The British Museum was created largely as a repository for artifacts looted from Africa between the 17th and 19th centuries. Arguably the greatest contribution that slavery made to British civilization was how slaves freed up time for British slave owners and their families to engage in social activities and sustained experiments that led to inventions that propelled the industrial revolution.

For instance, slavery financed the experiments of James Watt, inventor of the first really efficient steam engine. Many historians agree that slavery was also crucial in developing British democracy, since it allowed men greater time for public participation. British slave ships were essentially floating laboratories, offering medical researchers a chance to examine the course of various diseases in somewhat controlled, quarantined environments.

British doctors and researchers gleaned priceless epidemiological information on a range of diseases including malaria, smallpox, cholera, yellow fever, dysentery, typhoid, and so on, from the bodies of dying and dead slaves. Conditions on slave ships were so bad that, in his speech opening the parliamentary debate on the slave trade William Wilberforce estimated that half of the slaves, or six million souls, transported never made it to their destination. As Professor Eric Williams explains, Britain ultimately abolished slavery, not for moral reasons, but simply because abolition was now more profitable than continuing sugar plantations.

A century of sugar cane raising had exhausted the soil of the islands, and the plantations had become unprofitable. It became more profitable for British slave owners to simply sell the slaves to the government than to continue operations. The slaves themselves received nothing by way of compensation. The Caricom group of Caribbean nations has recently put pressure on David Cameron for Britain to formally apologize for slavery and pay reparations.

According to one estimate by Harpers Magazine, slaves between and , when slavery was ended performed ,, hours of forced labor. In fact, more riches flowed to Britain from the slave economy of Jamaica than all of the original American thirteen colonies combined. It is little wonder why David Cameron is keen to ignore any discussion with Jamaica about fair reparations.

Every year representatives of the German Finance Ministry and representatives of European Holocaust survivors meet to discuss reparations. So one wonders if Mr. The racial hypocrisy of the British government is clear: European Jews deserve billions in compensation but Africans deserve not even an apology, despite modern British capitalist civilization owing its very existence to slavery.

Nations must not be defined merely by what they decide to remember, but more importantly by what they choose to forget. During slavery, ordinary Britons may not have known the brutal subtleties of how sugar lumps arrived at their tables, but people today must not forget how the brutality of slavery not only built the prosperous Great Britain that we know today, but also how it civilized her. Garikai Chengu is a scholar at Harvard University. The leading expert on food at the United Nations says sharp price fluctuations in the price of food has little to do with actual supply.

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation currently estimates that about million people of the 7. We are not talking of poverty here but life threatening food shortages driven by the pursuers of profit. About one in eight people, or From to global food prices rose a staggering 94 percent and although they have been falling consistently over the last year, prices are still only 14 percent lower than all-time highs. Various attempts have ben made to curb speculation of food prices but most countries have done nothing significant. From Global Justice Now :. When it comes to financial market regulation, there is a lot at stake.

And none more so than in the area of the commodities market where years of deregulation was a major factor in driving food price spikes back in Staple foods like wheat and corn soared to record levels driving hunger and poverty across the globe. The European commission has been considering proposals from the European regulator to implement the legislation. But these proposals are massively weak and would be ineffective at curbing speculation. Weak rules have not been stopped from being proposed but this is a good development and shows that public pressure is making a difference. Read their open letter on food speculation to the EU Commissioner.

World Hunger reports that:. Nevertheless, the prevalence of undernourishment in sub-Saharan Africa has declined from Percentages are one thing to crow about but the actual number of the worlds hungry is actually increasing. The target set at the World Food Summit was to halve the number of undernourished people by from their number in This number is now on the rise again.

Hunger continues to take its largest toll in Southern Asia, which includes the countries of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The estimate of million chronically undernourished people in —16 is only marginally lower than the number in 25 years earlier. Eastern Asia where China is by far the largest country and South-eastern Asia including Indonesia, Philippines, Mynamar, Vietnam and others have reduced undernutriton substantially.

Food speculation continues to drive global hunger and with the global movement of refugees now at its highest since the second world war, hunger is on the increase. UNHCR states that there is enough food for all people of the world but the principal problem is that many people in the world still do not have sufficient income to purchase enough food. I have been filming in the Marshall Islands, which lie north of Australia, in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Few seem aware that the bikini swimsuit was named to celebrate the nuclear explosions that destroyed Bikini island.

Sixty-six nuclear devices were exploded by the United States in the Marshall Islands between and — the equivalent of 1. Bikini is silent today, mutated and contaminated. Palm trees grow in a strange grid formation. Nothing moves. There are no birds. The headstones in the old cemetery are alive with radiation. Standing on the beach, I watched the emerald green of the Pacific fall away into a vast black hole. The explosion poisoned people and their environment for hundreds of miles, perhaps forever. I relate this experience as a warning and to interrupt a distraction that has consumed so many of us.

How many people are aware that a world war has begun? At present, it is a war of propaganda, of lies and distraction, but this can change instantaneously with the first mistaken order, the first missile. In , President Obama stood before an adoring crowd in the centre of Prague, in the heart of Europe. People cheered and some cried. A torrent of platitudes flowed from the media. Obama was subsequently awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. It was all fake. He was lying.

Nuclear warhead spending alone rose higher under Obama than under any American president. A new mini nuclear bomb is planned. It is known as the B61 Model There has never been anything like it. Not since Hitler invaded the Soviet Union have foreign troops presented such a demonstrable threat to Russia. Having orchestrated a coup in Kiev, Washington effectively controls a regime that is next door and hostile to Russia: a regime rotten with Nazis, literally.

They openly praise Hitler and call for the persecution and expulsion of the Russian speaking minority. This is seldom news in the West, or it is inverted to suppress the truth. In Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia — next door to Russia — the US military is deploying combat troops, tanks, heavy weapons. What makes the prospect of nuclear war even more dangerous is a parallel campaign against China.

What does this really mean? It means freedom for American warships to patrol and dominate the coastal waters of China. Try to imagine the American reaction if Chinese warships did the same off the coast of California. All of them said that had journalists and broadcasters done their job and questioned the propaganda that Saddam Hussein possessed weapons of mass destruction; had the lies of George W.

The answer ought to be glaringly obvious. The United States is encircling China with a network of bases, with ballistic missiles, battle groups, nuclear -armed bombers. America has hung a noose around the neck of China. This is not news. Silence by media; war by media. In , in high secrecy, the US and Australia staged the biggest single air-sea military exercise in recent history, known as Talisman Sabre. In the circus known as the American presidential campaign, Donald Trump is being presented as a lunatic, a fascist.

He is certainly odious; but he is also a media hate figure. That alone should arouse our scepticism. Unleashing them?

Mission principale

This is the country where toddlers shoot their mothers and the police wage a murderous war against black Americans. This is the country that has attacked and sought to overthrow more than 50 governments, many of them democracies, and bombed from Asia to the Middle East, causing the deaths and dispossession of millions of people. No country can equal this systemic record of violence.

The ideology was messianic Americanism. We were all Americans. Or else. Heretics would be converted, subverted, bribed, smeared or crushed. Donald Trump is a symptom of this, but he is also a maverick. The danger to the rest of us is not Trump, but Hillary Clinton.

She is no maverick. And the drool goes on. He kills people usually on Tuesdays, according to the New York Times , when he is handed a list of candidates for death by drone. So cool. As Secretary of State under Obama, she participated in the overthrow of the democratic government of Honduras. Her contribution to the destruction of Libya in was almost gleeful.

She and her husband have received a fortune from Wall Street. Today, the long sleep may be over. The young are stirring again. The thousands in Britain who supported Jeremy Corbyn as Labour leader are part of this awakening — as are those who rallied to support Senator Bernie Sanders. In Australia, there is a kind of mortuary politics, in which tedious parliamentary games are played out in the media while refugees and Indigenous people are persecuted and inequality grows, along with the danger of war. There was no debate. What has happened to the great tradition of popular direct action, unfettered to parties?

Where is the courage, imagination and commitment required to begin the long journey to a better, just and peaceful world? Where are the dissidents in art, film, the theatre, literature? Where are those who will shatter the silence? Or do we wait until the first nuclear missile is fired? Quito, 21 mar Andes. A series of terror attacks hit Brussels on March According to Belgian broadcaster VRT, a suicide bomber was responsible for one of the blasts.

Three suicide belts packed with explosives have been also found at the Brussels airport by police. A gunfire and Arabic shouts have been reported before explosions. A blast at the Maalbeek metro station followed the explosions in airport killing 10 and injuring 15 more. Minutes after the blast at Maalbeek, explosions were reported to have taken place at Schuman and Arts-loi metro stations.

The security alert has been raised to the top — fourth — level throughout the country following the blasts. Public transport and airport in Brussels has been shot down. The French-Belgian border has also been closed, control has been increased at nuclear sites.

These events comes just four days after the capture of Salah Abdeslami n a police riot for playing a key role in the Paris attacks in November. The official revealed that Abdeslami is linked with a wide terror network in Brussel. The Belgian authorities have found more than 30 people involved in the terrorist attacks in Paris, where people were killed.

We remember much of the planning for the November attacks in Paris was also conducted in Belgium. A terror threat has become especially high in Europe because high number of terrorist arrived in the EU with refugees. Mais de qui? Contre qui? Impossible de le savoir. Mettre fin au secret bancaire. Il faut interdire aux banques toute transaction avec un paradis fiscal. Taxer fortement les banques. Il faut que les directions des banques remettent annuellement un rapport public sur leur gestion. By Caleb T. Maupin , March 22 Predicting the Next Hybrid Wars.

By Andrew Korybko , March 22 The first two parts of the series introduced new concepts to the Hybrid War theory and successfully tested them on the Syrian and Ukrainian cases. By Christopher Black , March 21 The bold initiative by the Russian government to withdraw some of its forces from Syria is a lesson in the use of limited military means to achieve limited political ends.

By Jordan Shilton , March 22 By Abayomi Azikiwe , March 22 Leading up to U. Conservative and liberal pundits alike called for Obama to take the Cuban revolutionary government to task. Human rights did, of course, come up but both Obama and Cuban President Raul Castro did not deliberate much on the issue, choosing instead to focus on the new relationship between their countries. When it comes to the question of human rights, however, it is important to begin by understanding that the United States and Cuba have vastly different conceptions of what constitutes human rights. But even from the U.

Prisoners at the infamous U. During his reelection campaign, Obama promised to close the prison citing the damage it causes to the U. However, the president backed away from implementing his promise later on due to stiff opposition by the greater Republican majority in Congress. Washington says the prisoners at the facility are terror suspects, but has not pressed charges against most of them in any court. Many detainees have gone on hunger strikes to protest their conditions at the prison, set up after the September 11, attacks.

The SASC hearing was particularly telling, because while ISIS was regularly brought up, it was clear from listening to the senators and the two generals providing testimony, that the real goal was still overthrowing the Syrian government and rolling back the influence of Russia and Iran in order to maintain American hegemony in the region and around the world. ISIS is merely an excuse to remain in the region to continue pursuing these goals. None of the senators nor the two generals, however, mentioned just how Libya became ungovernable in the first place — not even Senator McCain who literally walked, hand-in-hand, with the future rank and file of ISIS in Libya as they took over the country after the overthrow of the government in Tripoli.

In the one hour plus hearing, nothing resembling a tangible strategy for confronting and defeating ISIS was discussed.

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While nations like Russia and China are building economic relationships with the nations of the Middle East and North Africa region MENA , giving them footholds and influence throughout it, the US seems to be predicating their continued presence in MENA upon addressing perpetual chaos.

It is difficult to imagine that this sort of foreign policy is sustainable, and in a way, the committee acknowledged that too. When asked by the committee if they also believed that it looked like Russia was going to achieve its goals in Syria, both generals without hesitation agreed. Although the Wikileaks transcript dates the email as December 31, , this is an error on their part, as the contents of the email in particular the reference to May talks between Iran and the west over its nuclear program in Istanbul show that the email was in fact sent on December 31, What Israeli military leaders really worry about — but cannot talk about — is losing their nuclear monopoly.

An Iranian nuclear weapons capability would not only end that nuclear monopoly but could also prompt other adversaries, like Saudi Arabia and Egypt, to go nuclear as well. The result would be a precarious nuclear balance in which Israel could not respond to provocations with conventional military strikes on Syria and Lebanon, as it can today.

If Iran were to reach the threshold of a nuclear weapons state, Tehran would find it much easier to call on its allies in Syria and Hezbollah to strike Israel, knowing that its nuclear weapons would serve as a deterrent to Israel responding against Iran itself. The end of the Assad regime would end this dangerous alliance. Then, Israel and the United States might be able to develop a common view of when the Iranian program is so dangerous that military action could be warranted. In short, the White House can ease the tension that has developed with Israel over Iran by doing the right thing in Syria.

The real and disturbing possibility that a psychopath like Clinton—whose policy has inflicted death and misery upon millions of people—could become the next president of America is the most deeply shocking thought of all. The delegation, acting on behalf of the Palestinian Liberation Organization and the Palestinian Authority, recounted the history of Israeli settlements and presented cases against Israeli operations in Hebron and East Jerusalem.

Its claims spanned from water deprivation to environmental damage to abuse of Palestinian prisoners. The Dawabsha family, killed in their sleep during a firebombing, and Mohammed Abu Khdeir, a teenager kidnapped and burned alive, were brought up as specific cases of war crimes. Meetings happened for the first time in Amman, Jordan, from Saturday until Monday and will result in a definitive decision on four cases that were already filed with the ICC.

If ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda finds that there is enough evidence to open an investigation, the process — the most far-reaching incrimination of Israel for war crimes — could last years. Palestine joined the ICC in January , despite pressure by Israel and the United States — neither a signatory to the court — to block it.

One of the legal groups presenting the documents, Al-Haq, received multiple phone threats this month against its staff. The ICC was forced in November to review its decision on the Mavi Marmara, a flotilla carrying Turkish activists that was shot at on its way to Gaza, after Bensouda closed the case in He was already known to be in Syria in , and was the subject of an international arrest warrant in Some reports have said he spent time in prison for robbery where he met suspected ringleader Abdelhamid Abaaoud. He had earlier been sacked as a technician on the Brussels tram system, for missing work.

In other words, all of the suspects have been under the nose, on the radar, and in the prisons of Western security agencies on and off for years, yet were still able to carry out at least one high profile terrorist attack — possibly two, and with the vast majority of the suspects involved having traveled to Syria to fight alongside ISIS before inexplicably being allowed to re-enter Europe and rejoin society without consequence — as if inviting them to take their extremism to the next level.

The op-ed acknowledges that these terrorist attacks are being carried out by locals — Europeans — using local resources. Should the Brussels attack be linked to this same terror network, it will greatly complicate efforts by some to leverage this tragedy to further their agendas against refugees and even to change the dynamics of the war in Syria itself. Europeans are clearly already being radicalized and then leaving to Syria to fight alongside ISIS and then returning — rather than a torrent of foreigners streaming in from abroad and carrying out violence against European targets.

Should the Brussels attack turn out to be the work of this ISIS-linked terror group, considering the familiarity European security agencies had with all the suspects long before even the Paris attacks, indicates criminal negligence at best, and complicity at worst. In reality, it is clear that ISIS shows up and exercises force in regions of the world the US and its allies cannot intervene in directly. If the situation unravels there is the possibility of establishing a declared or undeclared Salafist principality in eastern Syria Hasaka and Der Zor , and this is exactly what the supporting powers to the opposition want, in order to isolate the Syrian regime, which is considered the strategic depth of the Shia expansion Iraq and Iran.

It allows for a growing police state and xenophobic tendencies to flourish at home, while justifying further war abroad. Dramatic loss of life in the terror attacks in Brussels: 34 killed and more than wounded according to the latest reports. In turn, alleged supporters of ISIS on twitter were quoted. According to the Jerusalem Post March 21, :.

A group of four young computer experts who call themselves VandaSec have unearthed evidence indicating that at least three ISIS-supporting accounts can be traced back to the DWP. Every computer and mobile phone logs onto the internet using an IP address, which is a type of identification number. The hacking collective showed Mirror Online details of the IP addresses used by a trio of separate digital jihadis to access Twitter accounts, which have been used to spread extremist propaganda. At first glance, the IP addresses seem to be based in Saudi Arabia, but upon further inspection using specialist tools they appeared to link back to the DWP.

After the sale completed in October of this year, they were used by extremists to spread their message of hate. Jamie Turner, an expert from a firm called PCA Predict, discovered a record of the sale of IP addresses, and found a large number were transferred to Saudi Arabia in October of this year. He told us it was likely the IP addresses could still be traced back to the DWP because records of the addresses had not yet been fully updated.

Mirror, op cit cit, emphasis added. The Turkish army would house these volunteers, train them and secure their passage into Syria.


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Ibid, emphasis added. And then in August , Obama launched his counter-terrorism campaign. Again according to the Daily Mirror in a report, the counterterrorism campaign was conducive to ISIS doubling the territory under its control, until the launching of the Russian intervention in late September Recently the release of the Hillary Clinton email archive as well as leaked Pentagon documents confirm that the US and its allies were supportive of ISIS, which are according to press reports, the alleged architects of the Brussels attacks. During the address, Clinton vowed to take the U.

And we should work together to develop better tunnel detection, technology to prevent armed smuggling, kidnapping and terrorist attacks. We have to combat all these trends with even more intense security and diplomatic cooperation. The United States and Israel must be closer than ever, stronger than ever and more determined than ever to prevail against our common adversaries and to advance our shared values. Keep speaking out. Expect many more hundreds of children to be massacred under a Hillary presidency. Has even one single Clinton supporter denounced the disgusting speech she gave today?

Ce ne sont pas des partisans de Sanders. Traduit par Wayan, relu par Ludovic pour le Saker Francophone. Ce qui, selon leur logique, devrait permettre leur victoire et donc mettre fin aux migrations. It represents a flagrant violation of international law by effectively abolishing the right to asylum, leaving the refugees at the mercy of the Turkish government. During the first day of the new regulations, an additional 1, refugees arrived on the Greek islands of Lesbos and Chios, bringing the total stranded in the country to more than 50, These new arrivals, and all those who subsequently reach Greece across the Aegean Sea, are to be returned to Turkey following a farcical asylum procedure which is intended to be completed within 48 hours.

Greek officials and volunteers assisting the refugees on the islands have described chaotic conditions at camps and warned that the agreement may not be enforceable. Giorgos Kyritsis, coordinator for immigration policy in Athens, told the press that Syriza Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras presented a plan at a cabinet meeting on Saturday afternoon which demanded the immediate implementation of the EU-Turkey deal. Military and security forces will play a prominent role in enforcing the deal. The Greek army was deployed to Lesbos on Saturday to move refugees to camps on the mainland. Even if the new regulations are fully implemented, the minuscule figure of 72, refugees will be reached in a matter of weeks, at which point the EU has vowed to suspend the resettlement programme.

Moreover, it remains entirely unclear which EU members will accept the initial 72, refugees, since no commitments were included in the deal. In addition, Turkey is also being offered the prospect of visa free travel within the EU for its 75 million citizens if it meets a series of conditions, and the opening of a new chapter in Turkish negotiations to join the EU. The deal with the EU has strengthened Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan in his brutal crackdown against political opponents and journalists. Seizing on the March 13 bombing in Ankara claimed by a splinter group of the Kurdish Workers Party PKK which left 37 dead, Erdogan announced his intention last week to expand the definition of terrorism to include MPs, journalists and activists.

The EU will be directly complicit in such repression by expelling refugees to a police state regime which has not even fully implemented the UN Refugee Convention. The adoption of such a policy, under conditions where Russian aircraft have intervened on the side of the Assad regime, would be the deployment of NATO air power and other forces along the lines of the regime-change operation in Libya.

The closure of the Balkan route to refugees without travel documents and the agreement to send all refugees arriving in Greece back to Turkey have resulted in alternative routes being considered, including passage through Albania before crossing the Adriatic Sea to Italy. The Austrian government vowed last month to impose border controls on the Brenner motorway on its border with Italy, one of the busiest routes between southern and northern Europe.

Noting that Italy could once again become the main entry point for refugees, he wrote,. This would be the first step in the fragmentation of the EU. The EU is further set to allow visa-free travel to 75m inhabitants of Turkey. The EU not only sold its soul that day, it actually negotiated a pretty lousy deal. In truth, the EU was not compelled to sell out its principles in order to entrust the authoritarian regime in Ankara with the carrying out of its dirty work.

Semplice, basta inventarlo o fabbricarlo. Ce lo insegna il generale Philip Breedlove, il capo del Comando europeo degli Stati uniti che sta per passare a un altro generale Usa il bastone di Comandante supremo alleato in Europa. Ora che la Russia, conseguito il primo obiettivo, ridimensiona il suo impegno in Siria, la Nato sotto comando Usa estende la sua presenza militare in Medio Oriente.

Diretta dal quartier generale di Napoli delle U. En el contexto del deseo de EE. En otras palabras, The New York Times parece estar preocupado acerca de la cultura socialista de Cuba. El discurso de EE. Es imposible olvidar esta historia. Este legado ha continuado de muchas formas y al mismo tiempo tratando siempre de mejorar la democracia participativa. Por supuesto, este grupo marginal, no se puede considerar una base para socavarla.

Global Research, 13 mars Cuba Debate. For this is no ordinary lobby representing the views of a typical American constituency in the interests of the United States of America. Screenshot: Salon. China is taking steps to protect its economic interest and political influence in the Central Asia.

On Mar. This initiative is clear signal that China is seeking to become more involved in security issues beyond its borders. The goal of the initiative is to develop rade and transit links among Central and Southeast Asia, the Middle East and Europe. However,many of those interests could easily be undermined by local threats especially in Central and South Asia. In Afghanistan and Pakistan militant groups have increase operations and the whole region is suffering from instability fueled by social problems and corruption of local governments.

Nonetheless, Afghanistan has already voiced its support for the idea. Others regional countries have also shown great interest in stabilizing Afghanistan to prevent terrorist groups and refugees from flowing across their borders. However, proposing a counterterrorism mechanism is not the same as establishing one. It would be wrong to expect that the project will become successful rapidly. According to experts, the most possible first steps are intelligence sharing and increasing cross-border counterterrorism capabilities which will boost coordination of of counterterrorism operations conducted in border areas.

The US has been already expanding its presence in the Central Asia using the Afghan crisis to involve more Central Asian states into own sphere of influence. The different security and military initiatives could become a common part of its One Belt, One Road project. This proved that a certain methodology does in fact exist for explaining and analyzing Hybrid Wars, and excitingly, this rubric can proactively be applied in attempting to predict the places where this form of post-modern warfare could be directed next. The grand objective behind every Hybrid War is to disrupt multipolar transnational connective projects through externally provoked identity conflicts ethnic, religious, regional, political, etc.

Considering this, the next step is to identify the major multipolar transnational connective projects ongoing or planned all across the world. Once this has been done, each transit state is assessed for the greatest number of vulnerable socio-political overlaps as according to the following six factors:. Concurrent with this, varying degrees of structural preconditioning are also practiced in order to intensify the artificially constructed divide between the state and the strategic elements of its citizenry. Due to this, social and structural preconditioning take on an enhanced role, as ideas and economic trends are a lot easier to interfere with and change than ethnic composition and provincial boundaries, for example.

As a result, the US and its allies have had to provide continual support to their proxy elements in order to unnaturally maintain the chaotic processes that they had expected to become self-perpetuating. In the event that such assistance is disrupted, it would thus directly translate into a visible weakening of the Hybrid War elements inside the country and consequently lead to their quick eradication. Contrarily, the situation was the diametric opposite in Ukraine, where no civilizational patriotism was present despite the rich legacy of Kievan Rus and scarcely any civic patriotism existed.

All that the US had to do was efficiently organize the proper assets and give them the signal to initiate their destabilization in unison. The chaotic processes then proceeded as theorized and began to take on a life of their own, requiring minimal guidance from that point onwards when compared to the strategic quagmire that the US crept into with Syria. However, a re-engineering of their demographics e. As with the first example, this could also change via a demographic re-engineering of society, albeit in a different manner whereby rapid most likely Chinese-supported development leads to the birth of an emergent middle class that could potentially fill the ranks of Color Revolution insurgents.

Likewise, something similar is currently playing out in West Africa with Boko Haram. This is especially the case with Chad, whose capital of Ndjamena is in extremely close proximity to the battleground and has already fallen victim to a few suicide bombings. A nascent Color Revolution would be the ultimate force multiplier in skyrocketing the chances that the government would be overthrown, either by Boko Haram, the urban insurgents, or a tacit and coordinated effort between the two.

From a standardized theoretical standpoint, the existing Unconventional Warfighters team up with the newly active Color Revolutionaries in order to decisively shift the balance against the state and succeed in the shared regime change objective. The below is a map that clearly illustrates the aforementioned geographic zones most likely to be threatened by Hybrid War in the future:.

Afterwards, a brief overview will be given whereby some of the most relevant socio-political vulnerabilities for each state will be touched upon and incorporated into broad Hybrid War scenarios. Hybrid Wars 1. The Law Of Hybrid Warfare. Hybrid Wars 2. The expectation of all parties involved, and the many voices supporting the negotiation process, was that after the deal was signed, the United States and the Islamic Republic of Iran would become much friendlier. The nuclear deal was expected to open a new chapter of diplomacy, resolving the decades of intense hostility.

However, this has not taken place. The signing of the nuclear deal and the lifting of the nuclear-related sanctions imposed on Iran has been followed by swift and blatant acts of aggression against Iran — not only from the United States, but from its allies around the world. Iran maintains ballistic missiles for the purpose of self-defense. It has invaded Lebanon five times, and it randomly attacked Iraq in The ballistic missile defense system exists so that the threat of a random Israeli or USA strike does not hang over the heads of the Iranian people.

However, US media relentlessly portrays the ballistic missile defense system as a threat. The United States has placed new sanctions on Iran since the nuclear conclusion based on the existence and continued maintenance of the ballistic missile system. Iran has already given up its peaceful nuclear energy program, something it is allowed to maintain under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. It appears that Israel and the leaders of the United States will not be satisfied until the country renders itself completely defenseless.

Almost all of the figures named as being involved were Saudi nationals. The ruling is outrageously insulting to Iran. Syrian Alawites are miles away from Iranian Twelver Shias in terms of belief. The democracy movement in Bahrain is a struggle for basic human rights and democracy against an absolute monarchy. To discover what is driving US foreign policy toward Iran, and why it has taken such a hostile turn since the signing of the historic accord, a good place to start is the Council on Foreign Relations CFR.


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It is where the top academics and foreign policy experts discuss and debate world affairs — behind closed doors, with members of Congress, the military, and the executive branch. The article talks about weakening Iran by attacking its allies in Syria, Yemen, and Lebanon. The article also poses Iran as a threat not because of anything the country is doing — but because its existence can inspire others.

It should be no surprise that after the nuclear deal was signed, Saudi Arabia executed Ayatollah Nimr Al-Nimr, the Shia cleric who led peaceful protests for democratic reform. It should also be no surprise that the US-aligned regime in Nigeria assaulted the Shia religious stronghold in Zaria, killing over a thousand people, and continues to hold Sheikh Zakzaky in military detention.

The aftermath of the nuclear agreement has been a great disappointment to those who strive for peace and international cooperation. US leaders saw the negotiations not as an opportunity for a new beginning, but as a sign of weakness. The nuclear deal has pushed US leaders into a kind of feeding frenzy. Like a shark smelling blood, they now intensify their hostility, seeking to sink their teeth into a peaceful, oil-rich country that dares assert economic and political independence. Caleb Maupin is a political analyst and activist based in New York.

Recent electoral data indicates that the number of African American voters going to the polls in the Democratic primaries and caucuses has taken a precipitous decline since when Barack Obama was elected. Despite the much championed reliance on the African American electorate by the Clinton campaign, this trend of declining participation could prove to be an ominous sign for the Democrats in the upcoming general elections in November.

The number of African-Americans who voted in the March 15 primaries declined drastically by an estimated 40 percent in Ohio, 38 percent in Florida and 34 percent in North Carolina compared with the turnout in the Democratic primary when Obama was on the ballot. New York Post, March The super PAC called Black Votes Matter founded by Charlie King has warned that even though primary turnouts are normally less than general elections, the Democratic Party must not assume that it will be able to mobilize the necessary electoral support to ensure a Clinton victory in November if she is able to maintain her lead in delegates.

Trump could become president. The question is: 90 percent of what? Results from the presidential elections indicate that the African American voters contributed significantly to the Obama campaign winning slim margins of victory over Republican candidate Mitt Romney in Florida percent , Ohio , Virginia and Pennsylvania Higher turnouts among African Americans are presumed to have made the difference in North Carolina where a Democratic nominee won the state for the first time in decades.

Nonetheless, supporters of Clinton suggests that the prospects of a Trump victory, if he is nominated by the Republican Party at their upcoming Cleveland convention, will inspire traditional Democratic constituencies to show up in great numbers in November. At the same time greater numbers of African Americans and other oppressed groups are voting for Sanders illustrating the lack of enthusiasm for the Clinton campaign.

This was reflected in the exit poll results for Ohio, Illinois and Missouri, where African American support for Sanders rivaled that in Michigan. Hillary Clinton continued to win the majority of African American votes. Nonetheless, Sanders increased his percentage of African American votes in these states compared to his performance in the South.

Exit polls say Sanders was not able to exceed 20 percent of the Black voter share in southern states which made up the old Confederacy. Nevertheless, exit poll data shows he won 28 percent of the African American vote in Michigan and Ohio, 29 percent in Illinois, and 32 percent in Missouri. Some 2. However, more Republicans turned out than Democrats. A total of 1,, voters participated in the Republican primary, giving Donald Trump a victory, while 1,, voted in the Democratic primary.

This level of participation is reflected throughout the entire Democratic electoral base where the former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton is the favorite candidate among the party hierarchy and its backers on Wall Street. In Iowa, where Mrs. Clinton barely won after a hotly fought battle with Sanders, exit polls suggested that turnout for voters under the age of 30 dropped by roughly 40 percent from Although the Democratic Party leaders and elected officials speak with confidence leading toward the convention in Philadelphia during late July, there are still 31 more primaries and caucuses between March 22 and June Illustrating the undemocratic character of the selection process for nominees, there are super delegates who have already pledged their allegiance to Clinton giving her the advantage.

These super delegates can ostensibly switch sides to Sanders if he is able to overcome Clinton in the upcoming elections. If Trump is selected as the nominee for the Republicans and the Democratic electoral base is not mobilized in support of the potential candidacy of Clinton, the probability for an extreme right-wing presidency exists.

Either way the nationally oppressed and working people in general will be faced with the necessity of building an independent political movement to challenge and defeat the inevitable programs of economic austerity, state repression and imperialist militarism. Overall there is a greater turnout in the primaries and caucuses among Republicans, largely due to the Trump campaign, than what exists among the Democratic electorate. Democrats on the other hand are showing up in lower numbers than they did in , the last open election. Another notable occurrence in the recent primary elections in Ohio and Illinois was the voting out of office of two county prosecutors in Chicago Cook and Cleveland Cuyahoga.

These electoral victories stemmed from two high-profile police killings of Laquan McDonald in Chicago and Tamir Rice in Cleveland during In Chicago, Anita Alvarez was the target of mass demonstrations when it was revealed that police had attempted to cover up the killing of MacDonald, who was shot 16 times after walking away from the cops in Chicago.

Rice, a year-old African American youth, was shot down while playing with a toy gun in a public park in Cleveland. However, no one has been held accountable in the shooting death of Tamir Rice. Earlier this month the United States administration of President Barack Obama utilizing the Office of Foreign Assets Control announced the extension of sanctions encompassing two fertilizer firms based in Zimbabwe which are owned by the Industrial Development Corporation IDCZ , a government controlled entity.

The targeting of these two firms was encompassed within the broader sanctions having been in effect since These sanctions against Zimbabwe were in direct response to the land reform program of which seized control of 50 percent of commercial farms owned by the descendants of British white settlers who colonized the country during the late 19 th century. Successive U.

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